TOS-1A (Solntsepyok) – Russian Heavy Flamethrower MLRS [Review]

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TOS-1A (Solntsepyok) – Russian Heavy Flamethrower MLRS [Review]
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TOS-1 is a Soviet 220mm 30-barrel or 24-barrel multiple rocket launcher and thermobaric weapon mounted on a T-72 tank chassis. TOS-1 was designed for defeating enemy personnel in fortifications, in open country, and in lightly armoured vehicles and transport. First combat tests took place in 1988–1989 in the Panjshir Valley during the Soviet war in Afghanistan. The TOS-1 was shown for the first time in public in 1999 in Omsk.

TOS-1 is not assigned to the artillery units of the Russian Armed Forces but is found in Russian CBRN defense units RKhBZ. That is why it does not have a GRAU index, but rather an RKhBZ index — МO.1.01.00.

The TOS-1A Solntsepyok system consists of the following items:

The “combat vehicle” BM-1 based on a modified T-72A chassis and fitted with a rotating launch system for 24 unguided thermobaric rockets. All rockets can be launched within 6 to 12 seconds. The launch vehicle is equipped with a fire control system with a ballistic computer, aiming sight and 1D14 laser range finder. The other standard equipment consists of a TKN-3A sight for the commander, a GPK-59 navigation system, an R-163-50U radio station, an R-174 intercom and a 902G smoke grenade launcher with four barrels. The 3-man crew is armed with one AKS-74, one RPKS-74, three RPG-26s, and 10 F-1 hand grenades. The BM-1 is fitted with the same equipment as the T-72 tank.

Two TZM-T re-supply vehicles, fitted with a 10 kN crane. Each vehicle carries 2×12 spare rockets and 400 litres of fuel for the BM-1 and has a combat weigh of 39 t. The TZM-T has a crew of three, armed with two AKS-74s, one RPKS-74, five RPG-26s, and 10 F-1 hand grenades.

A set of rockets NURS MO.1.01.04 and MO.1.01.04M. These are 3.3 m and 3.7 m long and weigh 173 kg and 217 kg respectively. The original rocket for the TOS-1A had a range of only 2,700 m, but the improved version extends the range to 6,000 m. Some sources say its range is 12 km. The system was modernized in 2016.

Type: Multiple rocket launcher
Place of origin: Soviet Union

In service: 1988–present
Used by: Soviet Union, Russian Federation, Azerbaijan

Wars:
Soviet-Afghan War
Nagorno-Karabakh conflict
Second Chechen War
Iraqi Civil War (2014-present),
Syrian Civil War

Designer: Omsk Transmash Design Bureau
Designed: 1988
Produced: 1987–present
Variants: TOS-1A

SPECIFICATIONS

Weight: 45.3 t
Length: 9.5 m
Width: 3.6 m
Height: 2.22 m
Crew: 3

Caliber: 220 mm
Rate of fire: 30 rounds/15 s

Effective firing range:
500–3,500 m (TOS-1)
6,000 m (TOS-1A)

Engine:
V-84 Diesel
840 hp

Operational Range: 550 km
Speed: 60 km/h


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