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(Russian Armed Forces)

The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (Russian: Вооружённые Си́лы Росси́йской Федера́ции, tr. Vooruzhonnije Síly Rossíyskoj Federátsii) are the military service of the Russian Federation, established after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. On 7 May 1992, Boris Yeltsin signed a presidential decree establishing the Russian Ministry of Defence and placing all Soviet Armed Forces troops on the territory of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic under Russian control.[13] The Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces is the President of Russia. The Russian Armed Forces were formed in 1992.

(Service Branches)

Armed forces under the Ministry of Defence are divided into:

the three “branches of Armed Forces” (вида вооружённых сил): the Ground Forces, Aerospace Forces, and the Navy
the two “separate troop branches” (Отдельные рода войск): the Strategic Missile Troops and the Airborne Troops
the Logistical Support, which has a separate status of its own
There are additionally two further “separate troop branches”, the National Guard and the Border Service. These retain the legal status of “Armed Forces”, while falling outside of the jurisdiction of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. The National Guard is formed on the basis of the former Internal Troops of Russia. The new structure has been detached from the Ministry of Internal Affairs into a separate agency, directly subordinated to the President of Russia. The Border Service is a paramilitary organization of the Federal Security Service – the country’s main internal intelligence agency. Both organizations have significant wartime tasks in addition to their main peacetime activities and operate their own land, air and maritime units.

The number of personnel is specified by decree of the President of Russia. On 1 January 2008, a number of 2,019,629 units, including military of 1,134,800 units, was set.[14] In 2010 the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) estimated that the Russian Armed Forces numbered about 1,027,000 active troops and in the region of 2,035,000 reserves (largely ex-conscripts).[15] As opposed to personnel specified by decree, actual personnel in the forces are paid was reported by the Audit Chamber of Russia as 766,000 in October 2013.[16][17] As of December 2016, the armed forces are at 93 percent of the required manpower, up from 82 percent reported in December 2013.[18]

According to Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, between 2005-2009 and 2010-2014, Russian exports of major weapons increased by 37 percent;[19] Russia spent $66.4 billion on arms in 2015,[12] then $69.2 billion in 2016, having taken 3rd place (after the U.S. and China).[20] According to the Russian Defence Ministry, share of modern weapons in the Armed Forces reached from 26 to 48 percent among different kinds of troops in December 2014.[21] This was raised to 30.5–70.7% as of July 2015.[22] The average was 58 per cent over the first half of 2017.[23]

(History)

The Soviet Union officially dissolved on 25 December 1991, leaving the Soviet military in limbo. For the next year and a half various attempts to keep its unity and to transform it into the military of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) failed. Over time, some units stationed in the newly independent republics swore loyalty to their new national governments, while a series of treaties between the newly independent states divided up the military’s assets.[24]

Apart from assuming control of the bulk of the former Soviet Internal Troops and the KGB Border Troops, seemingly the only independent defence move the new Russian government made before March 1992 involved announcing the establishment of a National Guard.[25] Until 1995, it was planned to form at least 11 brigades numbering 3,000 to 5,000 each, with a total of no more than 100,000. National Guard military units were to be deployed in 10 regions, including in Moscow (three brigades), Leningrad (two brigades), and a number of other important cities and regions. By the end of September 1991 in Moscow the National Guard was about 15,000 strong, mostly consisting of former Soviet Armed Forces servicemen. In the end, President Yeltsin tabled a decree “On the temporary position of the Russian Guard”, but it was not put into practice.


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